LosmakenBevestigenSluiten

Increased comfort and reduced energy consumption: building automation for all systems

By supporting all communication standards for building automation – from operating and monitoring, lighting, HVAC and facade control through to energy data collection – all functions can be integrated into the automation platform from Beckhoff. The universal, coordinated control system increases comfort levels for building users. In addition, the system-integrated nature of the platform delivers energy savings and reductions in investment and operating costs.

TwinCAT function blocks for building automation enable the automation of shade control, lighting, ventilation, in addition to heating and cooling according to the time of day and presence of occupants. This enables energy-saving room automation and enhanced comfort at the same time. For instance, lighting correlates directly with facade control. An effective interconnection of the two disciplines is the optimal way to reduce energy consumption of lighting. The end goal is to use as much natural daylight as possible without glare, while still providing constant light intensity.

A building can be regulated on a time-dependent basis via integrated room automation in a variety of different operating modes. This especially reduces heating and cooling energy consumption during longer periods of absence. Nevertheless, the system must reach a comfortable temperature quickly during core occupancy hours and ensure good air quality at the same time.

System overview

Beckhoff technology highlights for building automation

Due to the system integration of all systems, from moving objects, lighting technology, AV and media technology to building automation, the PC-based control platform is suitable for all fields of application in the entertainment industry.
Due to the system integration of all systems, from moving objects, lighting technology, AV and media technology to building automation, the PC-based control platform is suitable for all fields of application in the entertainment industry.

The PC-based control principle

The PC-based control technology from Beckhoff has proven itself worldwide since 1980 in the widest variety of industries and applications, from machine control and the automation of wind turbines to the entertainment industry. What was regarded 40 years ago as an outsider position has developed very quickly into a standard in the automation industry. Innovative product developments that underscored Beckhoff's PC-based control philosophy followed continuously and are regarded today as milestones in automation technology, such as the modular Bus Terminal system, the high-speed fieldbus EtherCAT or the Embedded PC. The basis for the universal usability of the Beckhoff control solution is its modularity, its scalability in terms of power and its openness toward other systems and tools.

PC-based control from Beckhoff represents a modularly constructed control solution that is fully scalable in all components and maps all automation functions in software: Safety technology, measurement technology, Condition Monitoring and robotics are also integrated into the control platform along with sequential control, motion control and visualization. The basic principle of PC-based control is very simple: it is based on a powerful Industrial PC, a high-performance fieldbus connection with the connected peripheral devices for sensors and actuators as well as TwinCAT, the real-time capable automation software for Motion Control and logic. The consistent use of mainstream technologies from the world of IT and their convergence to principles of automation technology have led to a continuous increase in performance and function as well as a considerable reduction in costs. The Beckhoff control platform is supplemented by an extensive portfolio of drive components.

With PC-based control, an extensive component construction kit is available to the system integrator for the automation of the various systems in the entertainment industry, such as moving objects, lighting technology, AV and media technology and building automation. Worldwide references from mobile and stationary stage and show technology, from unique applications and entertainment technology prove that PC-based control technology is ideally suited to the implementation of technically sophisticated stage and media shows.

Your advantage with PC-based control:

  • High performance for the high-precision control of processes and applications:
    • Industrial PCs with powerful processors of the latest generation
    • TwinCAT, the software for engineering and real-time control
    • EtherCAT, the high-speed fieldbus
  • Consistency: one controller for all systems of an entertainment application
  • Openness: simple use of third-party software (audio players, C#, C++, graphic tools, etc.)
  • Use of standard components, programming standards and networks
  • Modularity: enables the extension and modification of controller functions at any time
  • Scalability: components in all performance categories and designs
  • Extensive connectivity: from the horizontal communication of the devices with one another to the cloud connection
  • High availability: due to advanced diagnostics and predictive maintenance functions
  • Beckhoff is a full system supplier with a deep understanding of technology

Beckhoff supplies the largest number of EtherCAT-compatible automation modules for both I/Os and drive technology.
Beckhoff supplies the largest number of EtherCAT-compatible automation modules for both I/Os and drive technology.

High-speed communication with EtherCAT

EtherCAT was launched by Beckhoff in 2003 and made available as an open automation technology standard. With cycle times well below 1 ms, outstanding synchronization accuracy, flexible topology selection, extensive diagnostics and simple configuration, EtherCAT is also ideal for use in the entertainment industry. More than 6,000 companies worldwide have joined forces in the EtherCAT Technology Group (ETG), the world's largest industrial fieldbus user organization. More than twenty of the most renowned companies in the field of entertainment are also members of the ETG.

Beckhoff supplies the largest number of EtherCAT-compatible automation modules for both I/Os and drive technology. Due to worldwide support for EtherCAT, a large number of EtherCAT-compatible sensors and actuators are also available on the market, ensuring a high level of investment security. The performance of EtherCAT also supports creative people and engineers in the field of entertainment technology in the realization of unique applications. For example, a customer application such as "Kinetic Rain", which features 1,216 precisely synchronized axes, can only be realized on the basis of EtherCAT. With EtherCAT, almost any event in a show, theater or amusement park can be synchronized, which is usually not possible with “black box” hardware in the way they are normally used. The development of the DMX terminal, which requires 512 bytes of process data, is also based on EtherCAT; as of today, this is not possible with any other fieldbus system.

The general advantages of EtherCAT are:

  • high speed
  • simple diagnostics
  • control of up to 65,535 devices
  • EtherCAT allows the transmission of up to 64 kbit per slave
  • perfect synchronization

With around 100 signal types, users have an extensive EtherCAT I/O terminal portfolio at their disposal.
With around 100 signal types, users have an extensive EtherCAT I/O terminal portfolio at their disposal.

EtherCAT I/O Terminals automate any functionality in the entertainment industry

In 1995, Beckhoff launched the Bus Terminal, which has since become one of the most important technology standards in automation technology. That was followed in 2003 by the development of the fast EtherCAT communication system. Launched by Beckhoff as an open system, it became a global standard in automation within a few years. With around 100 signal types, an extensive EtherCAT I/O Terminal portfolio is available to users that is extremely well suited for automating every functionality in stage and show technology in terms of both its performance and variance. The Bus Terminals allow a variety of simple building bus systems to be integrated into the controller.

In contrast to the Bus Terminals, in which the fieldbus signal is converted in the Bus Coupler to the internal, fieldbus-neutral terminal bus, the EtherCAT protocol is completely preserved up to the individual terminal with EtherCAT Terminals. The EtherCAT I/Os enable DMX to be integrated into the controller. EtherCAT Terminals are used in almost every entertainment application.

The Beckhoff I/O system supports around 1000 Bus Terminals and is thus probably the most comprehensive system on the market. The components enable users to operate mixed signal configurations without restriction at each station. This means that a single non-central input/output node can map all of the necessary signals.
The Beckhoff I/O system supports around 1000 Bus Terminals and is thus probably the most comprehensive system on the market. The components enable users to operate mixed signal configurations without restriction at each station. This means that a single non-central input/output node can map all of the necessary signals.

The universal basic function block for automation

The I/O signals are wired decentralized to fieldbus devices or centrally to the controller. The available vendor-specific fieldbus devices with fixed input/output configurations and design often make it necessary to use an entire group of devices with similar functions. This complex signal acquisition results in high material, installation, design and documentation expenditures as well as high costs for later changes or extensions. Inventory management and service staff are put under unnecessary strain. The Beckhoff Bus Terminal is an open and fieldbus-neutral I/O system consisting of electronic terminal blocks. The head of an electronic terminal block is the Bus Coupler with the interface to the fieldbus. Bus Couplers for all leading field bus systems are available.

With the master terminals, fieldbus functionalities are also available in the form of a standard Bus Terminal. This is particularly advantageous for bus systems that are integrated as subsystems into a higher-level system. It means that only one system is required for the subsystem and for the higher-level bus interface. Master terminals are available for the following bus systems: BACnet MS/TP, KNX/EIB, LON, DALI/DALI-2, DMX, MP-Bus, M-Bus, SMI, EnOcean, Modbus etc.

Beckhoff product highlights for building automation

With TwinCAT 3 Building Automation, Beckhoff offers an extremely flexible and extensive construction kit consisting of hardware and software components for building automation. All components are coordinated in such a way that they make the consistent and efficient engineering of all subsections possible for the system integrator – from the PLC to the integration of the communication protocol to the creation of the system visualization – and reduce the development costs.
With TwinCAT 3 Building Automation, Beckhoff offers an extremely flexible and extensive construction kit consisting of hardware and software components for building automation. All components are coordinated in such a way that they make the consistent and efficient engineering of all subsections possible for the system integrator – from the PLC to the integration of the communication protocol to the creation of the system visualization – and reduce the development costs.

TwinCAT 3 Building Automation: the most comprehensive software package for building automation

In order to make the engineering of applications in building automation as efficient and simple as possible, Beckhoff has developed an extensive construction kit of software tools, libraries and application samples. The basic tool is the free programming environment TwinCAT Engineering (TE1000). It allows free programming according to IEC 61131-3 and gives the system user maximum flexibility in solving tasks.

The basic functions for the automation of all technical finishing systems of building automation – from simple logic blocks and PID controllers to the tracking of the blind slats in relation to the sun's position – are included in the TC3 Building Automation library (TF8040). With the function blocks from the TC3 Building Automation library, system integrators have an extensive portfolio of ready-to-use applications, the so-called templates, at their disposal. These are tried-and-tested and well-documented program blocks, ranging from applications in heating, ventilation and air conditioning technology to the room automation functions of solar protection and lighting control. They simplify the system integrator's familiarization with the system and ensure a high level of system functionality. This increases the quality of the execution as well as the reusability and maintainability of the programs created. For the integration of the Beckhoff automation stations into a management and control level, communication via BACnet and OPC UA is integrated directly into the templates. The system operation and parameterization can be carried out on site on the control cabinet via touch PC or remotely by means of an integrated HTML5 web visualization. The web-based visualization solution TwinCAT HMI (TF2000) is ideal for support with commissioning, system parameterization and maintenance. TwinCAT HMI supports all basic operating and monitoring functions of building automation, such as system graphics, alarm and event lists, scheduling and trends.

The TwinCAT 3 Lighting Solution, which can be configured easily and conveniently using Excel, focuses on simplifying all work steps – from engineering to maintenance. All typical lighting controllers are integrated in the system and the number of DALI lines is unlimited. Fast function changes, addressing and extensions are possible during operation, as are groupings that are independent of the DALI line and human centric lighting concepts related to the course of the day.
The TwinCAT 3 Lighting Solution, which can be configured easily and conveniently using Excel, focuses on simplifying all work steps – from engineering to maintenance. All typical lighting controllers are integrated in the system and the number of DALI lines is unlimited. Fast function changes, addressing and extensions are possible during operation, as are groupings that are independent of the DALI line and human centric lighting concepts related to the course of the day.

The efficient way to a DALI-2 lighting solution with simple configuration

With the TF8050 TwinCAT 3 Lighting Solution, Beckhoff has introduced an Excel-configurable lighting solution that focuses on simplifying all work steps from engineering to maintenance. All typical lighting controllers are integrated and the number of DALI lines is unlimited. Beckhoff bus couplers installed decentrally in the network can be used with extensive lighting systems, which significantly reduces the cabling work. TF8050 also supports features such as remote control via web, the import and export of Excel data or simple maintenance. The Beckhoff lighting solution also includes functions for Human Centric Lighting (HCL) as well as the integration of DALI-2 sensors. All these functions are simple to configure, even without programming knowledge. The Lighting Solution is fully web and HTML-capable, decentrally scalable and can be operated directly via a multi-touch panel. Fast function changes, addressing and extensions or groupings across DALI lines are directly possible during operation. Daylight-dependent human centric lighting concepts can also be implemented.

The advantages at a glance:

  • greatest possible simplification of all work steps for electricians, system integrators, and operators
  • easy to configure and also available as a ready-configured plug-and-play solution
  • simple extendibility and maintenance
  • no limitation of the DALI lines
  • grouping across DALI lines
  • fully web and HTML-capable
  • hardware-independent
  • decentrally scalable
  • includes all typical lighting controls

In TwinCAT BACnet, Beckhoff offers a complete product line that is characterized by its high scalability: From the compact ARM-based CX8191 controller, which supports up to 750 BACnet objects, to Panel PCs in various screen sizes to the CX51xx or the Industrial PCs from the C60xx series, on which several thousand BACnet objects can be collected and processed centrally, the devices can be used without restriction as BACnet Building Controllers (B-BC). With the EL6861 terminal, devices can be easily and securely connected via BACnet MS/TP (master-slave/token passing) and integrated into the BACnet network.
In TwinCAT BACnet, Beckhoff offers a complete product line that is characterized by its high scalability: From the compact ARM-based CX8191 controller, which supports up to 750 BACnet objects, to Panel PCs in various screen sizes to the CX51xx or the Industrial PCs from the C60xx series, on which several thousand BACnet objects can be collected and processed centrally, the devices can be used without restriction as BACnet Building Controllers (B-BC). With the EL6861 terminal, devices can be easily and securely connected via BACnet MS/TP (master-slave/token passing) and integrated into the BACnet network.

Embedded Controller for BACnet/IP

BACnet (Building Automation Control Network) is a standardized, manufacturer-independent communication protocol for building automation. Areas of application include HVAC, lighting control, safety and fire alarm technology.

The CX8191 is a compact DIN rail-mountable Ethernet control system with an ARM Cortex™-A9, 800 MHz CPU. The BACnet or OPC UA protocols can be operated via the switched Ethernet fieldbus interface. Alternatively K-bus or E-bus terminals can be series-connected; the CX automatically detects which system is connected during the start-up phase. The controller is programmed with TwinCAT 3 via the Ethernet interface. TwinCAT 3 licenses must be ordered with it on the basis of the TwinCAT 3 price list. The BACnet license is already installed in the device and does not need to be additionally ordered.

In conjunction with the EL6861 BacNET-MS/TP terminal, the CX8191 can also act as a router to MS/TP networks. Several MS/TP networks are possible. In addition, additional protocols and services such as OPC UA, MQTT or Modbus TCP/RTU can be operated. The CX8191 is therefore an almost universal device that can be used very flexibly from control tasks to gateway functions.

The multitouch panel series offers the greatest possible flexibility for implementing ergonomic operating concepts.
The multitouch panel series offers the greatest possible flexibility for implementing ergonomic operating concepts.

Maximum flexibility for proven and new operating concepts with multi-touch

The Beckhoff Panel generation with industry-standard multi-touch display offers the right solution for any application. The wide model variety ranges from different display sizes and formats to custom models. For single-touch users, the new panel generation also offers excellent value for money and a smart alternative to other systems.

Highlights

  • display sizes from 7-inch to 24-inch (16:9, 5:4, 4:3)
  • landscape and portrait mode
  • multi-touch (PCT): e.g., for 5-finger or 2-hand touch operation
  • high touch-point density for safe operation
  • high-quality aluminum housing, milled from a solid block
  • metal perimeter protection for the display front
  • built-in or mounting arm models
  • Control Panel with CP-Link 4 or DVI/USB-Extended technology
  • Panel PCs with CPUs from Intel® Atom™ to Core™ i7
  • optional electromechanical push-button extension

Connection of up to 64 DALI operating devices and DALI-2 sensors (input devices)

The Digital Addressable Lighting Interface (DALI) is a simple bus system for building automation that transmits the signals for the digital operation of lighting devices. The lighting, sensor, button and switching elements are wired in parallel, and are linked through the controller. Other actuators, such as heating control valves or the motors for operating blinds are increasingly being put under digital control.

DALI offers the following advantages:

  • an inexpensive interface with simple installation
  • fully digital switching of lamps and similar equipment
  • all main manufacturers of ballasts support DALI

The KL6811 DALI/DSI master and power supply terminal from Beckhoff closes the gap between the lighting controller and the luminaire and allows the connection of up to 64 DALI operating devices (DALI slaves). The KL6811 is integrated into the Beckhoff Bus Terminal system as a normal Bus Terminal and is therefore fieldbus-independent. The higher-level Bus Coupler transfers the data from the DALI master terminal to the controller. The DALI power supply unit integrated in the KL6811 supplies the DALI bus. No further components are required for the operation of the DALI line. The KL6821 DALI/DALI-2 multi-master and power supply terminal allows the connection of up to 64 DALI/DALI-2 slaves and 64 DALI input devices.

The compact room controller is modularly extendable: Pre-installed standard functionalities cover all necessary functions for room control, thus simplifying commissioning.
The compact room controller is modularly extendable: Pre-installed standard functionalities cover all necessary functions for room control, thus simplifying commissioning.

The room controller covers all standard functionalities in building automation

The BC9191 room controller integrates various automation functions in a single module and thus represents a compact and efficient solution in the price-sensitive field of room control. Pre-installed standard functionalities cover all necessary functions for room control, thus simplifying commissioning. In addition to integrated I/O signals and a sub-bus connection for room control units, the BC9191 has a K-bus interface and thus enables modular extension using Beckhoff Bus Terminals. Changes to room automation functions are possible in the TwinCAT development environment and save complex rewiring, as would be the case with wired controllers. As a freely programmable Ethernet controller the BC9191 can also be used as decentralized intelligence and thus offers the user the greatest possible flexibility in the construction of system-spanning, energy-efficient room automation.

Fanless Intel® Core™-i-Power for the ultra-compact Industrial PC generation.
Fanless Intel® Core™-i-Power for the ultra-compact Industrial PC generation.

Extremely space-saving, flexibly expandable and sturdy: the new generation of ultra-compact Industrial PC

Launched with the C6015, the series of ultra-compact Industrial PCs has positioned itself extremely successfully on the market due to its flexible application possibilities. As a sturdy control cabinet Industrial PC with an Intel® Atom™ CPU with up to four cores and a clock speed of 1.91 GHz, the C6015 is suitable for automation, visualization and communication tasks. The small dimensions of 82 x 82 x 40 mm and the flexible mounting options make the fanless multi-core PC the ideal controller for applications with high performance requirements and minimal mounting space in almost all areas of the entertainment industry. The interfaces for transferring electrical signals, IP, image and audio signals, which are available by default, make the C6015 suitable for cost-effective control of media walls, for example.

  • The C6017 multi-core computer, which measures just 82 x 82 x 66 mm, adds a variant to the family with additional optional interfaces.
  • Due to its high computing power and fanless design, the C6025 is particularly suitable for demanding control applications that also take into account the aspect of green IT. The basis for this is the Intel® Core™ i U processor, which consumes significantly less power.
  • The C6030 offers advantages such as low space requirements, universal usability and flexible mounting, even for complex applications with the highest performance requirements.
  • The C6032 has a further board level for modular interface and function extensions. The use of compact PCIe modules allows it to be perfectly adapted to the respective entertainment application and requirement profile.

Many-core computing power is available from DIN-rail-mounted CX20x2 Embedded PCs.
Many-core computing power is available from DIN-rail-mounted CX20x2 Embedded PCs.

Powerful, reliable and flexibly extendable: the Embedded PC series for control tasks in the building automation

The compact DIN-rail-mounted PCs from the CX series with directly connectable I/O level offer a space-saving industrial controller in the control cabinet. Beckhoff's extensive range of embedded controllers includes a device tailored to the budget, performance class and complexity of the control task for each application. In addition to the CPU, the individual devices from the CX series differ by the available system interfaces and power supply variants and can be plugged together and extended as a modular control system depending on the task in the entertainment sector.

The CX family includes several basic CPU modules with different processors for adaption of the performance to suit the respective control task. As a result, different applications can be implemented on the same hardware, such as a PLC and Motion Control system with a DVI/USB interface or a multimedia system with an audio interface.

The most powerful devices from the CX series are the CX20x2s, which are equipped with Intel® Xeon® processors and a separate graphic unit. They can be used to realize even sophisticated visualizations.

Beckhoff offers an extensive portfolio of energy and power measuring terminals for maintenance, power measurement and performance monitoring.
Beckhoff offers an extensive portfolio of energy and power measuring terminals for maintenance, power measurement and performance monitoring.

Continuous power measurement in entertainment technology due to integrated power measurement

Energy efficiency is also playing an increasingly important role in the entertainment industry. To save costs, peaks must be prevented, power consumption reduced and processes optimized. Complete, transparent acquisition and processing of all energy data is necessary to make the right cost-lowering decisions. With a broad portfolio of EtherCAT Terminals for energy management, Beckhoff provides suitable technology for the ongoing monitoring of power consumption as well as for the detailed consumption analysis.

Universal dimmer with integrated diagnostics

The dimmer bus terminals with a rated power of up to 300 VA (W) (KL2751) and 600 VA (W) (KL2761) are designed for the direct connection of various lighting devices, such as incandescent lamps as well as inductive and electronic control gears. The lighting devices are detected and controlled in the correct operation mode. Integrated diagnostics indicate the operating states by means of LEDs and make the status data available via the bus system. The electronic dimmer is extremely compact and is equipped with automatic load detection.

The EL2622-0010 output terminal has two relays, which both have a single contact. The relay terminal switches at the zero voltage crossing to protect the contacts and is particularly suitable for capacitive loads such as LED lamps. A practical test was able to show that an EL2622-0010 remained fully functional at a capacitive continuous current load of 4 A after 200,000 switching cycles (for details see documentation).

Integration of the KNX/EIB building bus system into the Beckhoff controller

The EIB Bus Terminal KL6301 connects the KNX/EIB bus system to the Beckhoff Bus Terminal system. The KL6301 offers the possibility to exchange any data with KNX/EIB devices. The ETS software is not required for configuring the KL6301. It is configured and parameterized via TwinCAT function blocks (IEC 61131-3).

Up to 16 drives can be connected to an SMI master terminal.
Up to 16 drives can be connected to an SMI master terminal.

SMI master terminals for direct connection to the standard motor interface (SMI)

The KL6831 and KL6841 SMI master terminals allow direct connection to the SMI bus system, simplifying the automation of blinds and solar protection devices. In combination with intelligent energy and lighting management, the slats can be positioned to the precise degree and tracked according to the position of the sun. The SMI drives can return actual positions, error messages and service information to the SMI master terminal. Up to 16 drives can be connected to an SMI master terminal. The KL6831 is suitable for LoVo SMI devices. The KL6841 is used to connect 230 V AC SMI devices.

BACnet MS/TP interface for connecting up to 64 BACnet field devices
BACnet MS/TP interface for connecting up to 64 BACnet field devices

1-channel BACnet MS/TP interface

The EL6861 serial interface enables the connection of BACnet MS/TP devices (Master-Slave/Token-Passing) via an RS485 interface. Up to 32 MS/TP devices can be connected – and up to 64 if using ultra-low power transceivers. Use the EL6861 interface only in combination with TwinCAT and CX9020 as a minimum, since the BACnet MS/TP driver integrated in TwinCAT implements the communication via the MS/TP protocol (BACnet revision 12). The configuration is also done in TwinCAT.

The following devices are typically connected to the EL6861:

  • frequency converters
  • pumps
  • drives (especially valve drives)
  • room control units
  • compact controllers (e.g., volume flow regulators)

The fast way to a platform-independent user interface: with TwinCAT HMI
The fast way to a platform-independent user interface: with TwinCAT HMI

The quicker way to an individual HMI

TwinCAT HMI makes consistent use of widely used IT standards such as HTML5, JavaScript and CSS. Through the integration of a fully graphical editor with an extensive toolbox in the familiar TwinCAT 3 engineering environment, it is possible to create extensive visualizations with little effort. Customer-specific functions that are not part of the visualization toolkit can be implemented using the IT standards mentioned above or via higher-level programming languages. The visualizations created are platform-independent and responsive on the client side. The powerful underlying architecture makes numerous application scenarios possible: from local panel solutions to multi-client, multi-server and multi-runtime configurations.

Instead of using proprietary systems, Beckhoff relies on IT standards:

  • Visual Studio® for engineering
  • HTML5 for design
  • TLS for secure communications
  • the user interface runs on any HTML5-enabled browser – regardless of operating system, resolution or display

TF8020: TwinCAT 3 BACnet

BACnet (Building Automation Control Network) is a standardized, manufacturer-independent communication protocol for building automation. Areas of application include HVAC, lighting control, safety and fire alarm technology. This protocol is implemented in TwinCAT both as a server and as a client and is capable of running on all Beckhoff Industrial PCs and Embedded PCs. All services of a B-BC (BACnet Building Controller) are supported such as for example, data sharing (DS), alarm and event processing (AE), schedule (SCHED), trend recording (T) as well as device and network management (DM).

Applications

Stage industry

PC-based control offers automation solutions for all stationary performances.

PC-based control from Beckhoff integrates all systems for mobile performances.

Show industry

PC-based control integrates all systems for mobile performances.

PC-based control from Beckhoff automates unique installations involving light, water and kinetics.

Unique applications

PC-based control automates unique installations involving light, water and kinetics.

PC-based control from Beckhoff supports entertainment technology – from leisure parks to TV studios.

Attractions

PC-based control supports entertainment technology – from amusement parks to TV studios.